Published Papers

Eric Palkovacs Google Scholar

Cramer AN, Hoey JN, Dolan TE, Gatins R, Toy JA, Cancellor JL, Palkovacs EP, Garza JC, Beltran RS. 2023. A unifying framework for understanding ecological and evolutionary connectivity. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 11.

Contolini GM, Palkovacs EP. 2023. Intraspecific variation in a predator changes intertidal community structure through effects on a foundation species. Ecology and Evolution.

Carvalho PG, Satterthwaite WH, O’Farrell MR, Speir C., Palkovacs EP. 2023. Role of maturation and mortality in portfolio effects and climate resilience. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. | Press Release | FishBio Blog

Dolan T, Palkovacs EP, Rogers TL Munch SB. 2023. Age structure augments the predictive power of time series for fisheries and conservation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Reid K, Hoey JA, Gahagan BI, Schondelmeier BP, Hasselman DJ, Bowden AA, Armstrong MP, Garza JC, Palkovacs EP. 2023. Spatial and temporal genetic stock composition of river herring bycatch in southern New England Atlantic herring and mackerel fisheries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. | Editor’s Choice

Ohms H.A., Chargualaf D.N., Brooks D., Hamilton C., Palkovacs E.P., Boughton D.A. 2022. Poor downstream passage at a dam creates and ecological trap for migratory fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Moffett E.R., Fryxell D.C., Benavente J., Kinnison M.T, Palkovacs E.P., Symons C.C., Simon K.S. 2022. The effect of pregnancy on metabolic scaling and population energy demand in the viviparous fish Gambusia affinis. Integrative and Comparative Biology.

Zarri L.J., Palkovacs E.P., Post D.M., Therkildsen N.O., Flecker, A.S. 2022. The evolutionary consequences of dams and other barriers for riverine fishes. BioScience | Featured on BioScience Talks Podcast

Benavente J., Fryxell D.C., Kinnison M.T., Palkovacs E.P., Simon K.S. 2022.Plasticity and evolution shape the scaling of metabolism and excretion along a geothermal temperature gradient. Functional Ecology.

Wasserman B.A., Rogers T.L., Munch S.B., Palkovacs E.P. 2022. Applying empirical dynamic modeling to distinguish abiotic and biotic drivers of population fluctuations in sympatric fishes. Limnology & Oceanography.

Wood Z.T., Palkovacs E.P., Kinnison M.T. 2022. Inconsistent evolution and growth-survival trade-offs in Gambusia affinis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Moffett E.R., Fryxell D.C., Lee F., Palkovacs E.P., Simon K.S. 2021. Consumer trait responses track change in resource supply along replicated thermal gradients. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Des Roches S., Robinson R.R., Kinnison M.T., Palkovacs E.P. 2021. The legacy of predator threat shapes prey foraging behavior. Oecologia.

Wood Z.T., Lopez L.K., Symons C.C., Robinson R.R., Palkovacs E.P., Kinnison M.T. 2021. Drivers and cascading ecological consequences of Gambusia affinis trait variation. The American Naturalist.

Wasserman B.A., Reid K., Arredondo O.M., Osterback A.K., Kern C.H., Kiernan J.D., Palkovacs E.P. 2021. Predator life history and prey ontogeny limit natural selection on the major armour gene, Eda, in threespine stickleback. Ecology of Freshwater Fish.

Fryxell D.C., Moffett E.R., Kinnison M.T., Simon K.S., Palkovacs E.P. 2021. From southern swamps to cosmopolitan model system: humanity’s unfinished history with mosquitofish. Fish and Fisheries.

Sabal M.C., Workman M.L., Merz J.E., Palkovacs E.P. 2021. Shade affects magnitude and tactics of juvenile Chinook salmon antipredator behavior in the migration corridor. Oecologia.

Sabal M.C., Boyce M.S., Charpentier C.L., Furey N.B., Luhring T.M., Martin H.W., Melnychuk M.C., Srygley R.B., Wagner C.M., Wirsing A.J., Ydenberg R.C., Palkovacs E.P. 2021. Predation landscapes influence migratory prey ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

Wood, Z.T., Palkovacs, E.P., Olsen B.J., Kinnison M.T. 2021. The importance of eco-evolutionary potential in the Anthropocene. BioScience.

Garcia-Elfring A., Paccard A., Thurman T.J., Wasserman B.A., Palkovacs E.P., Hendry A.P, Barrett R.D.H. 2021. Using seasonal genomic changes to understand historical adaptation to new environments: parallel selection on stickleback in highly‐variable estuaries. Molecular Ecology.

Des Roches S., Pendleton L., Shapiro B.A., Palkovacs E.P. 2021. Conserving intraspecific variation for nature’s contributions to people. Nature Ecology and Evolution.  | Press release | NEE Blog

Apgar T.M., Merz J.E., Martin B.T., Palkovacs E.P. 2021. Alternative migratory strategies are widespread in subyearling Chinook salmon. Ecology of Freshwater Fish

Oke K.B., Cunningham C.J., Westley P.A.H., Baskett M.L., Carlson S.M., Clark J., Hendry A.P., Karatayev V.A., Kendall, N.W., Kibele J., Kindsvater H.K., Kobayashi K.M., Lewis B., Munch S., Reynolds J.D., Vick G.K., Palkovacs E.P. 2020. Recent declines in salmon body size impact ecosystems and fisheries. Nature Communications. 11:4155 | Press release | CNN | NEE Blog

Alberti M., Palkovacs E.P., Des Roches S., De Meester L., Brans K.I., Govaert L., Grimm N.B., Harris N.C., Hendry A.P., Schell C.J., Szulkin M., Munshi-South J., Urban M.C., Verelli B.C. 2020. The complexity of urban eco-evolutionary dynamics. BioScience. biaa079.

Wasserman B.A., Paccard A., Apgar T.M., Des Roches S., Barrett R.D.H., Hendry A.P., Palkovacs E.P. 2020. Ecosystem size shapes anti predator trait evolution in estuarine threespine stickleback. Oikos

Contolini G.M., Kroeker K.J., Palkovacs E.P. 2020. Predator populations differ in their foraging responses to acute seawater acidification. Marine Ecology Progress Series 646:69-78.

Des Roches S., Brans K.I., Lambert M.R., Rivkin L.R., Savage A.M., Schell C.J., Correa C. De Meester L., Diamond S.E., Grimm N.B., Harris N.C., Govaert L., Hendry A.P., Johnson M.T.J., Munshi-South J., Palkovacs E.P., Szulkin M., Urban M.C., Verrelli B.C., Alberti, A. 2020. Socio-eco-evolutionary dynamics in cities. Evolutionary Applications

Smith S.E, Palkovacs E.P., Weidel B.C., Bunnell D.B., Jones A.W., Bloom D.D. 2020. A century of intermittent eco-evolutionary feedbacks resulted in novel trait combinations in invasive Great Lakes alewives. Evolutionary Applications

Urban M.C., Struass S.Y., Pelletier F., Palkovacs E.P., Leibold M.A., Hendry A.P., De Meester L., Carlson S.M., Angert A.L., Giery S.T. 2020. Evolutionary origins for ecological patterns in space. PNAS

Fryxell D.C., Hoover A.N., Alvarez D.A., Arnesen F.J., Benavente J.N., Moffett E.R., Kinnison M.T., Simon K.S., Palkovacs E.P. 2020. Recent warming reduces the reproductive advantage of large size and contributes to evolutionary downsizing in nature. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Rogers T.L., Munch S.B., Stewart S.D., Palkovacs E.P., Giron-Nava A., Matsuzaki S.S., Symons C.C. 2020. Trophic control changes with season and nutrient loading in lakes. Ecology Letters.

Sabal M.C., Merz J.E., Alonzo S.H., Palkovacs E.P.. 2020. An escape theory model for directionally moving prey and an experimental test with juvenile Chinook salmon. Journal of Animal Ecology.

Wood Z.T., Fryxell D.C., Moffett E.R., Kinnison M.T., Simon K.S., Palkovacs E.P. 2020. Prey adaptation along a competition-defense tradeoff cryptically shifts trophic cascades from density- to trait-mediated. Oecologia [PDF]

Contolini G.M., Reid K., Palkovacs E.P. 2020. Climate shapes population variation in dogwhelk predation on foundational mussels. Oecologia. [PDF]

Des Roches S., Bell M.A., Palkovacs E.P. 2019. Climate-driven habitat change causes evolution in threespine stickleback. Global Change Biology. [PDFPress release

Fryxell D.C., Wood Z.T., Robinson R., Kinnison M.T., Palkovacs E.P. 2019. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks link prey adaptation to predator performance. Biology Letters. 15:20190626.  [PDF]

Reid K., Garza J.C., Gephard S.R., Caccone A., Post D.M., Palkovacs E.P. 2019. Restoration-mediated secondary contact leads to introgression of alewife ecotypes separated by a colonial-era dam. Evolutionary Applications. [PDF]

Goerig E., Wasserman B.A., Castro-Santos T., Palkovacs E.P. 2019. Body shape is related to attempt rate and passage success of brook trout at in-stream barriers. Journal of Applied Ecology. [PDF]

Zarri L.J., Danner E.M., Daniels M.E., Palkovacs E.P. 2019. Managing hydropower dam releases for water users and imperiled fishes with contrasting thermal habitat requirements. Journal of Applied Ecology. [PDFPress release | Interview on NPR

Fryxell, D.C., D.E. Weiler, M.T. Kinnison, E.P. Palkovacs. 2019. Eco-evolutionary dynamics of sexual dimorphism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 34:591-594.  [PDF]

Wood, Z.T., D.C. Fryxell, R.A. Robinson, E.P. Palkovacs, M.T. Kinnison. 2019. Phenotypic and community consequences of captive propagation in mosquitofish. Journal of Applied Ecology 56:1538-1548. [PDF]

Zarri, L.J., S.B. Mehl, E.P. Palkovacs, N.A. Fangue. 2019. Key transitions in morphological development improve age estimates in white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanous. Journal of Fish Biology 94:815-819. [PDF]

Ware I.M., C.R.Fitzpatrick, A. Senthiathan, S.L.J. Bayliss, K.K. Beals, L.O. Mueller, J.L. Summers, R.C. Wooliver, M.E. Van Nuland, M.T. Kinnison, E.P. Palkovacs, J.A. Schweitzer, J.K. Bailey. 2019. Feedbacks link ecosystem ecology and evolution across spatial and temporal scales: Empirical evidence and future directions. Functional Ecology 33:31–42. [PDF]

Zarri, L.J., E.P. Palkovacs. 2018. Temperature, discharge and development shape the larval diets of threatened green sturgeon in a highly managed section of the Sacramento River. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 28:257-265.  [PDF]

Moffett, E.R., D.C. Fryxell, E.P. Palkovacs, M.T. Kinnison, K.S. Simon. 2018. Local adaptation reduces the metabolic cost of warming. Ecology 99:2318-2326. [PDF]

Reid, K., E.P. Palkovacs, D.J. Hasselman, D. Baetscher, J. Kibele, B. Gahagan, P. Bentzen, M.C. McBride, J.C. Garza. 2018. Comprehensive evaluation of genetic population structure for anadromous river herring with single nucleotide polymorphism data. Fisheries Research 206:247-258. [PDF]

Littrell, K.A., D. Ellis, S.R. Gephard, A.D. MacDonald, E.P. Palkovacs, K. Scranton, D.M. Post. 2018. Evaluating the potential for pre‐zygotic isolation and hybridization between landlocked and anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) following secondary contact. Evolutionary Applications 11:1554–1566 [PDF]

Wood Z.T., E.P. Palkovacs, M.T. Kinnison. 2018. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks from non-target species influence harvest yield and sustainability. Scientific Reports 8:6389 [PDF]

Paccard, A., B. A. Wasserman, D. Hanson, L. Astorg, D. Durston, DS. Kurland, T.M. Apgar, R.W. El-Sabaawi, E.P. Palkovacs, A.P. Hendry, R.D.H. Barrett. 2018. Adaptation in temporally variable environments: stickleback armor in periodically breaching bar-built estuaries. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 31:735-752 [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., M.M. Moritsch, G.M. Contolini, F. Pelletier. 2018. Ecology of harvest-driven trait change and implications for ecosystem management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 16:20-28. [PDFMedia coverage: Anthropocene

Des Roches, S., D.M. Post, N.E. Turley, J.K. Bailey, A.P. Hendry, M.T. Kinnison, J.A. Schweitzer, E.P. Palkovacs. 2018. The ecological importance of intraspecific variation. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2:57-64.
[PDF] Media coverage: Science Daily, Nature EcoEvo Blog, Press Release

Kindsvater, H.K., E.P. Palkovacs 2017. Predicting eco-evolutionary impacts of fishing on body size and trophic role of Atlantic cod. Copeia. 105:475-482. [PDF]

Fryxell, D.C., E.P. Palkovacs. 2017. Warming strengthens the ecological role of intraspecific variation in a predator. Copeia. 105:523-532. [PDF]

Baetscher, D.S., D.J. Hasselman, K. Reid, E.P. Palkovacs, J.C. Garza. 2017. Discovery and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms in two species of anadromous alosine fishes of conservation concern. Ecology and Evolution. 7:6035-7130. 10.1002/ece3.3215 [PDF]

Ogburn, M.B., D.J. Hasselman, T.F. Schultz, E.P. Palkovacs. 2017. Genetics and juvenile abundance dynamics show congruent patterns of population structure for depleted river herring populations in the upper Chesapeake Bay. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 37:1083-1092. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. 2017. The value and intrigue of eco-evolutionary dynamics. Ecology 98:1977-1978. doi: 10.1002/ecy.1823 [PDF]

Apgar, T.M., D.E. Pearse, E.P. Palkovacs. 2017. Evolutionary restoration potential evaluated through the use of a trait-linked genetic marker. Evolutionary Applications. 10:485-497 doi: 10.1111/eva.12471 [PDF]

Alberti, M., C. Correa, J.M. Marzluff, A.P. Hendry, E.P. Palkovacs, K.M. Gotanda, V.M. Hunt, T.M. Apgar, Y. Zhou. 2017. Global urban signatures of phenotypic change in animal and plant populations. PNAS. 114:8951-8956 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1606034114 [PDF]
Media coverage: AnthropoceneScience Daily

Twining, C.W., E.P. Palkovacs, M. Friedman, D.J. Hasselman, D.M. Post. 2016. Nutrient loading by anadromous fishes: species-specific contributions and the effects of diversity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 74:609-619. doi:10.1139/cjfas-2016-0136 [PDF]

Fryxell, D.C., A.R. Diluzio, M.A. Friedman, N.A. Menge, E.P. Palkovacs. 2016. Cross-habitat effects shape the ecosystem consequences of co-invasion by a pelagic and a benthic consumer. Oecologia. 182:519-528 doi:10. 1007/ s00442-016-3663-9 [PDF]

Hasselman, D.J., E.C. Anderson, N.D. Bethoney, S.R. Gephard, D.M. Post, B.P. Schondelmeier, T.F. Schultz, T.V. Willis, E.P. Palkovacs. 2016. Genetic stock composition of marine bycatch reveals disproportional impacts on depleted river herring genetic stocks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 73:951-963. doi: 10.1139/cjfas-2015-0402 [PDF]

Fryxell, D.C., H.A. Arnett, T.M. Apgar, M.T. Kinnison, E.P. Palkovacs. 2015. Sex ratio variation shapes the ecological effects of a globally introduced freshwater fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 282:20151970. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1970 [PDF]
Media coverage: Science360 Top Story | Santa Cruz Sentinel Article

Palkovacs, E.P., D.C. Fryxell, N.E. Turley, D.M. Post. 2015. Ecological effects of intraspecific consumer biodiversity for aquatic communities and ecosystems. In A. Belgrano, G. Woodward, U. Jacob (eds.) Aquatic Functional Biodiversity: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective. Elsevier. [Request Chapter] [Order Book]

McBride, M.C., D.J. Hasselman, T.V. Willis, E.P. Palkovacs, P. Bentzen. 2015. Influence of stocking history on the population genetic structure of anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in Maine rivers. Conservation Genetics. 16:1209-1223. doi: 10.1007/s10592-015-0733-1 [PDF]

Turner, S.M., K.E. Limburg, E.P. Palkovacs. 2015. Can different combinations of natural tags identify river herring natal origins at different levels of stock structure? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 72:845-854. doi: 10.1139/cjfas-2014-0403. [PDF]

El-Sabaawi, R.W., M.C. Marshall, R.D. Bassar, A. Lopez-Sepulcre, E.P. Palkovacs, C. Dalton. 2015. Assessing the effects of guppy life history evolution on nutrient recycling: from experiments to the field. Freshwater Biology. 60:590-601. doi: 10.1111/fwb.12507 [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., E.G. Mandeville, D.M. Post. 2014. Contemporary trait change in a classic ecological experiment: rapid decrease in alewife gill-raker spacing following introduction to an inland lake. Freshwater Biology. 59:1897-1901. doi:10.1111/fwb.12392 [PDF]

Hasselman, D.J., E.E. Argo, M.C. McBride, P. Bentzen, T.F. Schultz, A.A. Perez-Umphrey, E.P. Palkovacs. 2014. Human disturbance causes the formation of a hybrid swarm between two naturally sympatric fish species. Molecular Ecology 23:1137-1152. doi:10.1111/mec.12674. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. 2014. Pillars of Evolution: Fundamental Principles of the Eco-Evolutionary Process. Quarterly Review of Biology 89:60-61. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., D.J. Hasselman, E.E Argo, S.R. Gephard, K.E. Limburg, D.M. Post, T.F. Schultz & T.V. Willis. 2014. Combining genetic and demographic information to prioritize conservation efforts for anadromous alewife and blueback herring. Evolutionary Applications 7:212-226. doi:10.1111/eva.12111 [PDF]

Jones, A.W., E.P. Palkovacs & D.M. Post. 2013. Recent parallel divergence in body shape and diet source of alewife life history forms. Evolutionary Ecology. 27:1175-1187. doi:10.1007/s10682-013-9650-2 [PDF]

Odling-Smee, J., D.H. Erwin, E.P. Palkovacs, M.W. Feldman & K.N. Laland. 2013. Niche construction theory: a practical guide for ecologists. Quarterly Review of Biology 88:3-28. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., M.T. Kinnison, C. Correa, C.M. Dalton & A.P. Hendry. 2012. Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change. Evolutionary Applications 5:183-191. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4571.2011.00212.x [PDF]

A’Hara S.W. et al. 2012. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011- 30 September 2011. Molecular Ecology Resources 12:185-189. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0998.2011.03088.x [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. & C. M. Dalton. 2012. Ecosystem consequences of behavioral plasticity and contemporary evolution. In R. Wong and U. Candolin (eds.) Behavioral Responses to a Changing World: Mechanisms and Consequences. Oxford University Press.  [PDF] [Order Book]

Schielke, E.G., E.P. Palkovacs & D.M. Post. 2011. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks drive niche differentiation in the alewife. Biological Theory 6:211-219 doi:10.1007/s13752-012-0031-9 [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. 2011. The overfishing debate: an eco-evolutionary perspective. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 26:616-617. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2011.08.004 [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., B.A. Wasserman & M.T. Kinnison. 2011. Eco-evolutionary trophic dynamics: loss of top predators drives trophic evolution and ecology of prey. PLoS ONE 6(4):e18879. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018879 [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. & A.P. Hendry. 2010. Eco-evolutionary dynamics: intertwining ecological and evolutionary processes in contemporary time. F1000 Biology Reports 2:1. doi10.3410/B2-1 [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. 2010. Challenges for Diadromous Fishes in a Dynamic Global Environment. Quarterly Review of Biology 85:235-236. [PDF]

Bailey, J.K., A.P. Hendry, M.T. Kinnison, D.M. Post, E.P. Palkovacs, F. Pelletier, L.J. Harmon & J.A. Schweitzer. 2009. From genes to ecosystems: an emerging synthesis of eco-evolutionary dynamics. New Phytologist 184:746-749 [PDF]

Kinnison, M.T., E.P. Palkovacs, C.T. Darimont, S.M. Carlson, P.C. Paquet & C.W. Wilmers. 2009. Some cautionary notes on fisheries evolutionary impact assessments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 106:E115. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., M.C. Marshall, B.A. Lamphere, B.R. Lynch, D.J. Weese, D.F Fraser, D.N. Reznick, C.M. Pringle & M.T. Kinnison. 2009. Experimental evaluation of evolution and coevolution as agents of ecosystem change in Trinidadian streams. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 364:1617-1628. [PDF]

Post, D.M. & E.P. Palkovacs. 2009. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks in community and ecosystem ecology: interactions between the ecological theatre and the evolutionary play. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 364:1629-1640. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. & D.M. Post. 2009. Experimental evidence that phenotypic divergence in predators drives community divergence in prey. Ecology 90:300-305. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. & D.M. Post. 2008. Eco-evolutionary interactions between predators and prey: can predator-induced changes to prey communities feed back to shape predator foraging traits? Evolutionary Ecology Research 10:699-720. [PDF]

Post, D.M., E.P. Palkovacs, E.G. Schielke & S.I. Dodson. 2008. Intraspecific variation in a predator affects community structure and cascading trophic interactions. Ecology 89:2019-2032. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., K.B. Dion, D.M. Post & A. Caccone.  2008. Independent evolutionary origins of landlocked alewife populations and rapid parallel evolution of phenotypic traits. Molecular Ecology 17:582-597. [PDF]

Russell, A.L., J. Ranivo, E.P. Palkovacs, S.M. Goodman, & A.D. Yoder. 2007. Working at the interface of phylogenetics and population genetics: a biogeographic analysis of Triaenops spp. (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae). Molecular Ecology 16:839-851. [PDF]

Karanth, K.P., E.P. Palkovacs, J. Gerlach, S. Glaberman, J.P. Hume, A. Caccone, & A.D. Yoder. 2005. Native Seychelles tortoises or Aldabran imports? The importance of radiocarbon dating for ancient DNA studies. Amphibia-Reptilia 26:116-121. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., A.J. Oppenheimer, E. Gladyshev, J.E. Toepfer, G. Amato, T. Chase & A. Caccone. 2004. Genetic evaluation of a proposed introduction: the case of the greater prairie chicken and the extinct heath hen.  Molecular Ecology 13:1759-1769. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P. 2003. Explaining adaptive shifts in body size on islands: a life history approach. Oikos 103:37-44. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., M. Marschner, C. Ciofi, J. Gerlach & A. Caccone. 2003. Are the native giant tortoises from the Seychelles really extinct? A genetic perspective based on mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Ecology 12:1403-1413. [PDF]

Palkovacs, E.P., J. Gerlach & A. Caccone. 2002. The evolutionary origin of Indian Ocean tortoises (Dipsochelys). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24:216-227. [PDF]